Sunday, June 12, 2016

दुनिया कैसे देखें..

किसी ने लिस्‍ट बनाकर, और हाथ में थमाकर, यह दिक्‍कत दूर नहीं कर दी कि इतने तरीके हैं, इतने में देख आओ. शिमला और इंदौर में खड़े और हंसी में दहलते हुए हमने फोटो भी नहीं खिंचवाई, कि लो, हम यह दुनिया देखते हुए.. जानने पर डॉक्‍टर भी चौंकता है क्‍या ज़रुरत है देखने की, अपने को स्‍वस्‍थ्‍य तरीके से देखते रहो, काम का जो है, दुनिया उसी में दिख जाएगी. स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य है तो जहान है. सुनकर मैं उदास होता हूं कि ऐसे ही लीनियर लद्धड़ डाक्‍टरों की दुनिया आई है हमारे हिस्‍से.. 

उमस में लेटे-लेटे करवट बदलते उदासियों के पार धीरे-धीरे हुमस चढ़ती रहती है, कैसे देखें. मगर फिर यह भी दिखता है कि लेटे-लेटे आखिर कितना देखा जा सकता है? खड़ा रहने की जगह कहां है और कितनी है, और खड़े रहकर फिर कितनी दूर जाया जा सकता है? हिन्‍दी का मुसाफिर घर में भटकने से थककर लाचार बाहर निकल भी आए तो बसों में लटका, भटका-भागता-भूलता कितनी दूर जा सकता है, ले-देकर जाने के लिए चालीस लोगों के बीच कविता के पाठ की जगह निकलेगी, स्‍कॉलरशिप का तयशुदा लगभग इतना ही स्‍पेस निकलेगा, फिर वह किसका दिया चबेना बांधकर चेन्‍नई और चीले पहुंच जाए? 'दिनमान' के पुराने पन्‍नों में अलेंदे का हनन पढ़ने तक चीले ठीक है (हालांकि रहते-रहते तब भी मन ख़याल उठता ही है कि इतना सांतियागो समझकर हमें कहां जाना है), मगर सचमुच चीले पहुंच ही गए तो इसका अंदाज़ है कि इनेस द स्‍वारेज़ और मैपु की लड़ाई और ला चिस्‍तेर्ना और सान मिगेल कितना हमारे पल्‍ले पड़ेगा?

हमें कुएं का पानी अच्‍छा लगता है और घंटों छोर पर बैठे हम ईनार का बहार देखते रह सकते हैं, उससे बाहर की दुनिया के ख़याल तक से हमारे अवचेतन में घबराहट के सांप लोटने लगते हैं. पीठ पर नानी का पुकारना याद आता है भागकर छौंड़ा हेराने जाता है, का हो, सोमारु बो?

मालूम नहीं संसाधनों के दलिद्दर ने हमारे अरमानों को मारा हुआ है, या मुर्दा अरमान हैं कि संसाधनों का कभी सुभीता नहीं बनता. भूगोल तो दूर, हम 'द मैजिकमाउंटेन' (1924) और 'द मैन विदाउट क्‍वालिटीज़' (1940) के पन्‍नों में भी नहीं भटकते.. कि क्‍या होगा योरप समझकर, जबकि योरप भी अपने को अब तक बहुत समझ नहीं सका है..


इस बात पर फिर बात करेंगे, और बहुत बातें हैं इस विषय पर खंगालने को, मगर फिलहाल, मन में उमस और हुमस हो तो, टॉनी जुट के 2005 में लिखे इन पन्‍नों पर नज़र डालें, जिसमें वो गुज़रे योरप को कैसे देखें की चिंताओं में घुल रहे हैं.. युद्ध के घ्‍वंस के ठीक बाद के वियेना की कुछ याद आपको ग्राहम ग्रीन के 'थर्ड मैन' से होगी, टॉनी अपनी किताब की भूमिका के शुरुआती हिस्‍से में उस वियेना की चमड़ी में थोड़ा ज्‍यादा गहरे उतर रहे हैं..   

"Europe’s future would look very different—and so, too, would its past. In retrospect the years 1945-89 would now come to be seen not as the threshold of a new epoch but rather as an interim age: a post-war parenthesis, the unfinished business of a conflict that ended in 1945 but whose epilogue had lasted for another half century. Whatever shape Europe was to take in the years to come, the familiar, tidy story of what had gone before had changed for ever. It seemed obvious to me, in that icy central-European December, that the history of post-war Europe would need to be rewritten.

The time was propitious; so, too, was the place. Vienna in 1989 was a palimpsest of Europe’s complicated, overlapping pasts. In the early years of the twentieth century Vienna was Europe: the fertile, edgy, self-deluding hub of a culture and a civilization on the threshold of apocalypse. Between the wars, reduced from a glorious imperial metropole to the impoverished, shrunken capital of a tiny rump-state, Vienna slid steadily from grace: finishing up as the provincial outpost of a Nazi empire to which most of its citizens swore enthusiastic fealty.

After Germany was defeated Austria fell into the Western camp and was assigned the status of Hitler’s ‘first victim’. This stroke of doubly unmerited good fortune authorized Vienna to exorcise its past. Its Nazi allegiance conveniently forgotten, the Austrian capital—a ‘Western’ city surrounded by Soviet ‘eastern’ Europe—acquired a new identity as outrider and exemplar of the free world. To its former subjects now trapped in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia, Vienna stood for ‘central Europe’: an imagined community of cosmopolitan civility that Europeans had somehow mislaid in the course of the century. In Communism’s dying years the city was to become a sort of listening post of liberty, a rejuvenated site of encounters and departures for eastern Europeans escaping West and Westerners building bridges to the East.

Vienna in 1989 was thus a good place from which to ‘think’ Europe. Austria embodied all the slightly self-satisfied attributes of post-war western Europe: capitalist prosperity underpinned by a richly-endowed welfare state; social peace guaranteed thanks to jobs and perks liberally distributed through all the main social groups and political parties; external security assured by the implicit protection of the Western nuclear umbrella—while Austria itself remained smugly ‘neutral’. Meanwhile, across the Leitha and Danube rivers just a few kilometres to the east, there lay the ‘other’ Europe of bleak poverty and secret policemen. The distance separating the two was nicely encapsulated in the contrast between Vienna’s thrusting, energetic Westbahnhof, whence businessmen and vacationers boarded sleek modern expresses for Munich or Zurich or Paris; and the city’s grim, uninviting Südbahnhof: a shabby, dingy, faintly menacing hangout of penurious foreigners descending filthy old trains from Budapest or Belgrade.

Just as the city’s two principal railway stations involuntarily acknowledged the geographical schism of Europe—one facing optimistically, profitably west, the other negligently conceding Vienna’s eastern vocation—so the very streets of the Austrian capital bore witness to the chasm of silence separating Europe’s tranquil present from its discomforting past. The imposing, confident buildings lining the great Ringstrasse were a reminder of Vienna’s one-time imperial vocation—though the Ring itself seemed somehow too big and too grand to serve as a mere quotidian artery for commuters in a medium-sized European capital—and the city was justifiably proud of its public edifices and civic spaces. Indeed, Vienna was much given to invoking older glories. But concerning the more recent past it was decidedly reticent.

And of the Jews who had once occupied many of the inner city’s buildings and who contributed decisively to the art, music, theatre, literature, journalism and ideas that were Vienna in its heyday, the city was most reticent of all. The very violence with which the Jews of Vienna had been expelled from their homes, shipped east from the city and stamped out of its memory helped account for the guilty calm of Vienna’s present. Post-war Vienna—like post-war western Europe—was an imposing edifice resting atop an unspeakable past. Much of the worst of that past had taken place in the lands that fell under Soviet control, which was why it was so easily forgotten (in the West) or suppressed (in the East). With the return of eastern Europe the past would be no less unspeakable: but now it would, unavoidably, have to be spoken. After 1989 nothing—not the future, not the present and above all not the past—would ever be the same.

Although it was in December 1989 that I decided to undertake a history of postwar Europe, the book did not get written for many years to come. Circumstances intervened. In retrospect this was fortunate: many things which have become a little clearer today were still obscure back then. Archives have opened. The inevitable confusions attendant upon a revolutionary transformation have sorted themselves out and at least some of the longer-term consequences of the upheaval of 1989 are now intelligible. And the aftershocks of 1989 did not soon abate. The next time I was in Vienna the city was struggling to house tens of thousands of refugees from neighbouring Croatia and Bosnia.

Three years after that Austria abandoned its carefully-cultivated post-war autonomy and joined the European Union, whose own emergence as a force in European affairs was a direct consequence of the east-European revolutions. Visiting Vienna in October 1999 I found the Westbahnhof covered in posters for the Freedom Party of Jörg Haider who, despite his open admiration for the ‘honourable men’ of the Nazi armies who ‘did their duty’ on the eastern front, won 27 percent of the vote that year by mobilizing his fellow Austrians’ anxiety and incomprehension at the changes that had taken place in their world over the past decade. After nearly half a century of quiescence Vienna—like the rest of Europe—had re-entered history." 

(पोस्‍टवॉर, टॉनी जुट, पेंगुइन, 2006 से साभार)


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